On July 13 in history:

July 13, 2023

On July 13 in history:

1249 – Coronation of Alexander III as King of Scots.

1573 – Eighty Years’ War – The Siege of Haarlem ends after seven months,

1586 – Anglo-Spanish War – A convoy of English ships from the Levant Company manage to repel a fleet of eleven Spanish and Maltese galleys off the Mediterranean island of Pantelleria.

1643 – English Civil War – Battle of Roundway Down – In England, Henry Wilmot, 1st Earl of Rochester, commanding the Royalist forces, defeats the Parliamentarian forces led by Sir William Waller.

1787 – The Congress of the Confederation enacts the Northwest Ordinance establishing governing rules for the Northwest Territory.  It also establishes procedures for the admission of news states and limits the expansion of slavery. The Northwest Ordinance (formally An Ordinance for the Government of the Territory of the United States, North-West of the River Ohio and also known as the Ordinance of 1787), was an organic act of the Congress of the Confederation of the United States. It created the Northwest Territory, the new nation's first organized incorporated territory, from lands beyond the Appalachian Mountains, between British North American and the Great Lakes to the north and the Ohio River to the south. The upper Mississippi River formed the territory's western boundary. Pennsylvania was the eastern boundary.

Northwest Territory (1787)

1793 – Journalist and French revolutionary Jean-Paul Marat is assassinated in his bathtub by Charlotte Corday, a member of the opposing political faction.  Jean-Paul Marat  a French political theorist, physician, and scientist. A journalist and politician during the French Revolution, he was a vigorous defender of the sans-culottes, a radical voice, and published his views in pamphlets, placards and newspapers. His periodical L’Ami du peuple (Friend of the People) made him an unofficial link with the radical Jacobin group that came to power after June 1793. His journalism was known for its fierce tone and uncompromising stance toward the new leaders and institutions of the revolution. Responsibility for the September massacres has been attributed to him, given his position of renown at the time, and a paper trail of decisions leading up to the massacres. Others posit the collective mentality that made them possible resulted from circumstances and not from the will of any particular individual. Marat was assassinated by Corday, a Girondin sympathizer, while taking a medicinal bath for his debilitating skin condition. Corday was executed four days later for his assassination, on July 17, 1793.

1814 – The Carabinieri, the national gendarmerie of Italy, is established.

1854 – In the Battle of Guaymas, Mexico, General Jose Maria Yanez stops the French invasion led by Count Gaston de Raousset-Boulbon. Indeed, on August 12 a Mexican firing squad executed Raousset-Boulbon in Guaymas, Sonora, the port city where both of his failed expeditions began.

1863– New York City draft riots – opponents of conscription begin three days of rioting which will be later regarded as the worst in United States history.  As in many situations leading to violence there are many facets to the story but a short version is that the riots were violent disturbances in Lower Manhattan, widely regarded as the culmination of white working-class discontent with new laws passed by Congress that year to draft men to fight in the ongoing Civil War.  President Lincoln diverted several regiments of militia and volunteer troops after the Battle of Gettysburg to control the city. The rioters were overwhelmingly Irish working-class men who did not want to fight in the Civil War and resented that wealthier men, who could afford to pay a $300 commutation fee to hire a substitute, were spared from the draft. At the time a typical laborer's wage was between $1.00 and $2.00 a day, and the fee was equivalent to $7,100 in 2022.

1878 – Treaty of Berlin – The European powers redraw the map of the Balkans, Serbia, Montenegro and Romania so they become completely independent of the Ottoman Empire.

1919 – The British airship R34 lands in Norfolk, England, competing the first airship return journey across the Atlantic in 182 hours of flight.

R-34 compared to the Woolworth Building, the world's tallest structure in 1919

1956 – The Dartmouth workshop is the first conference on artificial intelligence.  The Dartmouth Summer Research Project on Artificial Intelligence was a 1956 summer workshop widely considered to be the founding event of artificial intelligence as a field.  The project lasted approximately six to eight weeks and was essentially an extended brainstorming session. Eleven mathematicians and scientists originally planned to attend; not all of them attended, but more than ten others came for short times.

1973 – Watergate – Alexander Butterfield reveals the existence of a secret Oval Office taping system to investigators for the Senate Watergate Committee.

1977 – New York City – Amidst a period of financial and social turmoil experiences an electrical blackout lasting nearly 24 hours that leads to widespread fires and looting.  Apparently there is no statistical confirmation that New York had a higher birth rate nine months after the blackout. Newspapers did report the spike but then the numbers were questioned and no one is really sure.. From what I could discover, no one is sure.

1985 – Vice President George H.W. Bush becomes the Acting President for the day when President Reagan undergoes surgery to remove polyps from his colon.

1990 – Lenin Peak disaster – a 6.4 magnitude earthquake in Afghanistan triggers an avalanche on Lenin Peak, killing 43 climbers in the deadliest mountaineering disaster in history.  Lenin Peak was originally named Mount Kaufmann after Konstantin Kaufman, the first Governor-General of the Russian Turkestan. In 1928, the mountain was renamed Lenin Peak after the Russian revolutionary and first leader of the Soviet Union, Vladimir Lenin. Sounds to me like the first disaster was the renaming of the peak.

2016 – Prime Minister of the United Kingdom David Cameron resigns and is succeeded by Theresa May.

From Brazil
From the Netherlands
From the Netherlands
From Jordan
From Latvia
From U.A.E.
Michael Ramirez takes us back to American cartoonists

As I wrote yesterday, I am not necessarily an advocate, but the

Administration did no favors for itself or Ukraine by simply announcing

the delivery and not explaining the significant differences

between our “cluster” bombs and others and their specific

intended use.