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Bio and Medicine

In 1965, the Kyiv surgeon Mykola Amosov performed the first surgery operation on a heart mitral valve using antithrombotic prostheses, which he invented. Amosov founded the Cardiac Surgery Center that became the center of global innovation in the field. Not only was the world’s first heart surgery in a pressure chamber held there, but almost one hundred thousand heart operations took place at the center. In 2008, Mykola Amosov took second place in the ranking of Great Ukrainians.

Erwin Chargaff (born in 1905 in Chernivtsi) determined the quantitative relations of nitrogen bases that are part of nucleic acids. The scientist explained his discovery in the “Chargaff’s Rule”, namely the overall number of adenine surplus in every molecule in the DNA equals to the thymine surplus. By the same token, the number of guanine surplus equals to that of cytosine. Chargaff’s Rule played a decisive role in de-ciphering the DNA structure in a shape of double helix by James Watson and Francis Crick. Chargaff’s studies laid the foundations for a rapid development of genetics research.

Ion Degen (born in 1925 in the town of Mohyliv-Podilsky, Vinnytsia region) successfully conducted the world’s first reattachment of the patient’s forearm on May 18, 1959. The first surgery of this kind outside of Ukraine took place in Boston in 1962. Degen’s works helped Moscow doctors to conduct similar surgeries. However, after Degen’s departure to Israel in 1977, his name was suppressed in the history of Soviet medicine for ideological reasons.

The first known successful corneal transplantation took place in Olomouc (now Czech Republic) in 1905. The surgeon planted corneas from the patient’s eye, which was about to be removed, to another eye that was treated. In 1912, Vladimir Filatov (1875-1956) successfully performed his first corneal transplantation from a deceased person. Filatov’s breakthrough in ophthalmology even during his own lifetime helped save the eyesight of hundreds of thousands of people. His techniques are still widely used around the world. Besides, Vladimir Filatov developed an effective methodology of skin grafts and other tissues, which are still used in both human and veterinary medicine. In 1936, he founded the Institute of Eye Diseases and Tissue Therapy in Odesa, Ukraine.

In 1922, the Russian geophysicist Alexander Friedmann, who lectured at the University of Kyiv in 1916-1917, designed a mathematical model of the Universe that expands. Scientists applied the model in retrospective to understand the Universe emerged as a result of explosion. In 1948, George Gamow, a famous American mathematician of the Ukrainian descent (born in 1904 in Odesa) proposed a physical model of the Universe origins known as the Big Bang. Gamow et al predicted the existence of cosmic microwave background radiation, which was scientifically described only in 1964 that proved Gamow’s theory.

After James Watson and Francis Clark discovered a double helix of the DNA structure, scientists struggled to de-cipher the protein codes that form it. Findings of a renowned American mathematician of Ukrainian descent, George Gamow (born in 1904 in Odesa), played a decisive role in these research, as he proposed a mathematical model and introduced the concept of a genetic code that shapes combinations of amino acids in the DNA molecule.

Ilya Mechnikov was the author of fundamental works in the fields of immunology, bacteriology and epidemiology, as well as the pioneer of studying a human aging process (gerontology). He was born in 1845 in Ivanivka village, Kharkiv region, and later studied at the Kharkiv University. He worked
at the Odesa University that now bears his name and then assumed post of the lab director at the Pasteur Institute in Paris. Mechnikov was the first to develop a coherent theoryof protective systems of the human body. He also studied the effect of fungi and bacteria on a human immune system – this research subsequently led to the development of antibiotics. In 1908, Ilya Mechnikov was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for the development of phagocytosis theory of the human immune system.

This is a method of connecting soft tissue during surgery using a high-frequency electric current; designed in 1992-93 by the Paton Electric Welding Institute of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine under the leadership of Boris Paton. The method is widely applied in gynecology, urology, thoracic surgery, ophthalmology, oncology, etc.

The surgical suture, or zip fastener is a plastic device that is glued to the body with adhesive tape and looks like an adhesive patch, allowing the skin to breathe. It was designed by Poltava resident Vitali Zapeka from 1992‑2002. This device even stops arterial bleeding quickly, without pus, scars, needles or sutures. Furthermore, no special training is necessary for use. It is most effective for urgent assistance to victims of accidents and global disasters. A surgeon removes the seam and re‑closes the wound after the operation to allow the skin to grow together smoothly and with minimal scarring.

Created in 2014 in the Kharkiv Aerospace Institute and the National Aviation University (Kyiv), this scalpel uses high pressure to remove non-muscle tissue with minimal damage to the vascular system. The liquid jet scalpel will be used to operate on the liver and the stomach as well as for removing malignant tumors.

Tuberculosis remained a dangerous desease even after the discovery of casusative bacteria in 1882. The mortality rates reached 25 percent in the first five years after being infected. In 1943, a group of American scientists discovered streptomycin as a highly effective antibiotic that neutralizes the disease. Starting from 1946, the mortality rate from tuberculosis plummeted by 90% owing to the wide use of streptomycin, which paved the way to elimination of tuberculosis endemic in developed countries over the next decade. The group of researchers was led by a Ukrainian emigre Zelman Vaksman (1888-1973) who was born in Nova Pryluka village, Vinnytsia region. In 1952, Zelman was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physyology or Medicine.

Space and Aeronautics

After the tragic crash of the Hindenburg zeppelin in 1937, it has been considered that the age of zeppelins has gone forever. However, aircraft designs of Igor Pasternak (born in 1964 in Lviv) returned zeppelins in the skies in the twentieth century, gaining a significant share of the cargo transportation market. A U.S.-based company Worldwide Aeros Corp, which belongs to Pasternak, has developed and launched serial production of Aeroscraft zeppelin with a payload of up to 250 tons. Aeroscraft can reach the speed of 185km/h using 70% less fuel than an airplane with similar characteristics. It can also land on any surfaces instead of an airfield. The Aeroscraft zeppelin opens entirely new ways for exploration and commercial use of the aircraft even in the most remote corners of the world.
Ilya Muromets is the world’s first passenger aircraft, the world’s first four-engine aircraft, and the world’s first strategic bomber. Ilya Muromets was designed by Igor Sikorsky, who was born in Kyiv in 1889. He studied at the Kyiv Polytechnic Institute (1907-1911). From 1912-1918, he was the chief designer of the aviation department of the Russian-Baltic Carriage Works. In 1913, Sikorsky designed the world’s first aircraft to series multi-engine airplane with a row-organized layout of engines “Russkiy Vityaz” a.k.a. “Grand”. At the end of the same year, under his leadership the airplane “Ilya Muromets” was built. Its modification, IM-B Kievsky (1914) became the world’s first passenger aircraft, which flew the route from St. Petersburg to Kyiv. With the outbreak of World War II, the aircraft of the “Ilya Muromets” series became the world’s first long-range strategic bombers (1915).

Antonov-225 Mriya is the world’s largest commercial plane, and the heaviest aircraft in the world. In March 1989, in one flight with a maximum takeoff weight of more than 500,000 kg (1.1 million pounds), 106 world records, as well as records for the aircraft of this class, were set. It was created between 1985-1988 by Oleh Antonov Aircraft Design Bureau in Kyiv, Ukraine. Designed for the needs of the Soviet space program, it transported the Soviet space shuttle “Buran” on its fuselage. Since 2002, it has been used for commercial transportation.

The most favorable and fuel efficient track for the space flight from the Earth to the Moon for the first time was calculated and published in the book,”The Conquest of Interplanetary Space,” by Yuri Kondratyuk. Yuri Kondratyuk (the real name is Oleksandr Sharhey) was born in Poltava, Ukraine in 1897, and he lived in the town of Smila, Ukraine. The head of the US Space Program “Apollo” John Hubolt and Neil Armstrong repeatedly publicly stated the crucial role of Kondratyuk in both the success of the “Apollo” program and the successful landing of man onto the moon.

The comet was discovered on October 23, 1969 by the Ukrainian researchers Klim Churyumov and Svetlana Gerasimenko. Churyumov was born on February 19, 1937 in Mykolayiv, Ukraine, was a corresponding member of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, and director of the Kyiv planetarium. Soviet and American astronomers named a comet, as well as small planets №2627, №3942, and №6646 after Churyumov and his family members. Gerasimenko was born in the town of Baryshevka, Ukraine. The comet and minor planet №3945 are named in her honor. On March 2, 2004, the Rosetta spacecraft of the European Space Agency was launched from Kourou in French Guiana, which goal was to study Churyumov-Gerasimenko comet. Churyumov and Gerasimenko were guests of honor at the launch. The device reached the comet in November 2014. After remote study of the cosmic body, the Philae Lander for the first time in the history of mankind landed on the comet on November 12, 2014. Research of Churyumov-Gerasimenko comet continues until today.

The world’s first welding in space was completed in 1969 by astronauts of the spacecraft “Soyuz-6” Valeriy Kubasov and Georgiy Shonin on the automatic cannon “Vulcan,” designed at the Paton Electric Welding Institute in Ukraine. Welding in outer space was implemented for the first time with the use of URI plant by astronauts Svetlana Savitskaya and Vladimir Janibekov on board of the orbital space station “Salyut-7.” These experiments opened the prospect for constructing complex structures in orbital space.

In March 1979, American robotic space probe Voyager 1 for the first time photographed the rings around the solar system’s largest planet, Jupiter. In 1990, NASA space probe Galileo studied them in detail. Unlike the rings of the Saturn, since the rings of the Jupiter are not so big and have a low albedo – meaning they are black and do not reflect light -they are almost impossible to see from the Earth. Despite this, in 1960 their existence was predicted by the Ukrainian astronomer Serhiy Vsekhsviatskiy, who from 1939-1981 was a professor and head of the Department of Astronomy of the University of Kyiv. He was also the discoverer of extended coronal flows that later were called “solar wind.” In 2010, for the first time in history of mankind, the Japanese spacecraft IKAROS deployed a solar sail, which by means of the solar wind is able to deliver it to the Venus.

The design of the world’s first two-circuit turbojet engine was developed from 1939-1941 by Ukrainian Arkhip Lyulka, who was born in 1908 in the village of Savarka, Kyiv region, Ukraine. He graduated from Kyiv Polytechnic Institute, and proceeded to work at the Kharkiv Aviation Institute. Since 1946, he became the general designer of aircraft engines, and thus the father of the Soviet military jet aircraft. His engine is still running in the most popular military aircraft of Russia, Sukhoi-27, and the technologies and patents developed by Lyulka are widely used in all areas of the world aviation industry. Lyulka’s engines were used for the Soviet lunar and space shuttle programs.

Ukrainian scientists have made a decisive contribution to the success of the Soviet space program, and Ukrainian companies were the base both for the production of spacecraft and launch vehicles, as well as for intercontinental ballistic missiles. After independence was proclaimed, Ukraine began the implementation of its own space program. Ukrainian launch vehicles “Zenit-2”, “Zenit 3SL”, “Zenit 3SLB”, and “Dnipro” put commercial satellites into orbit as part of joint international programs. Currently, the design work is being carried out for a space rocket complex,“Cyclone-4,” a family of launch vehicles “Mayak,” and aerospace systems “Svityaz” and “Oril.” In addition, Ukraine participates in the international space programs “Sea Launch,” “MAX,” “ISS,” “Antares,” “VEGA,” “Aurora,” “Galileo,” “GMES,” and “FLPP” in cooperation with the space agencies of the European Union, the USA, Japan, India, China and Brazil.

The MBR R-7 placed into space orbit the first artificial Earth satellite and first manned spacecraft. It was designed by a team of Soviet scientists led by Serhiy Korolyov, who was born in 1907 in Zhytomyr, Ukraine. From 1924-1926, he studied at the Kyiv Polytechnic Institute. Korolyov is considered to be the father of both the Soviet space program and the first intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM), which was built in 1957. Moreover, liquid fuel engines were developed by the design bureau headed by Valentyn Hlushko, who was born in 1908 in Odesa, Ukraine. Hlushko was the designer of the Soviet space shuttle “Energia-Buran.” The profound modifications of the R-7 missile carrier are used in Russian space programs even today.

The Caspian Sea Monster ekranoplan, or KM—invented by Rostyslav Alekseyev—was the world’s heaviest aircraft until the introduction of the Anotonov-225 “Mriya”. An ekranoplan is a seaplane with an aerodynamic screen allowing it to hover several meters in the air over bodies of water. While the first models were created in the 1930s, the ekranoplans designed by Rostyslav Alekseyev (born in 1916 in Novozybkov, Chernihiv region) were the most famous and effective. The “KM,” the Russian acronym for “naval prototype,” was first tested in 1966, and was used for experimentation until 1980. It served as a prototype for a series of seaplanes for military and rescue purposes. Furthermore, the Soviet Lun Ekranoplan, a seaplane missile launcher was based on Alekseyev’s design. Alekseyev also designed the first Soviet ground-effect aircrafts and several series of Soviet hydrofoils, still used today around the world.

Buran, a Soviet space shuttle, was created by the “Molniya” design bureau headed by Ukrainian designer Hlib Lozyno-Lozynsky (born in 1909 in Kyiv, Ukraine). He graduated from Kharkiv Engineering University and was the designer of the Soviet fighters and interceptors Mikoyan MiG-27 and Mikoyan Mig-31 and the Soviet orbital fighter of the “Spiral” series. The first and only space flight of the Buran space shuttle took place on November 15, 1988 on autopilot. Due to the economic crisis and the collapse of the Soviet Union, the project was frozen.

It is an original lock mechanism for the airplane hood and doors as well as racing cars that deteriorate due to vibration and frequent use. It was designed by Volodymyr (William) Dzus (born in 1895 in Chernyhivtsi village, Ternopil region). First the lock was designed for cars, but a rising demand for the invention allowed Dzus to build up production facilities in the United States and then in Europe. Excessive profits derived from state military procurements during the Second World War allowed Dzus to spend some of his fortune on charitable causes. He financed Red Cross initiatives and programs of the Ukrainian diaspora in USA. In 1948, he became the first president of the Ukrainian Institute of America, and in 1955 he bought a luxurious mansion for it on the Fifth Avenue in New York.

Agriculture

Traditional fixed-comb hives for beekeeping require harvesters to kill the entire bee colony to collect honey. This reduced the industry’s sustainability and led to the extinction of the most productive bee families. In 1814, the Ukrainian beekeeper Petro Prokopovych (born in 1775 near Chernihiv, Ukraine) proposed the world’s first design of a movable frame beehive that not only provided easy access to the honeycombs, but also allowed honey collection without harming bees. Prokopovych’s beehive quickly spread around the world. Further modifications in Europe and the USA allowed for safe wintering of bee families and other essential improvements. The modern movable-frame beehive appeared in 1851 in the United States.

Electronics

EnableTalk gloves can establish verbal contact between people with disabilities and those who do not understand sign language. They were created by the QuadSquad team in 2012, by the Ukrainian students Anton Pasternykov, Maksym Osyka, Valery Stepanov and Anton Yasakov. At Microsoft’s Imagine Cup 2012 competition, this project won the first prize. Each glove has 15 touch sensors that recognize sign language and convert it to text on mobile devices. Connection ensured via Bluetooth, and the gloves work on solar batteries. The price of this invention is $75, extremely cheaper than the price of rival devices, which often reach $1,000. In addition, EnableTalk gloves are of better quality, as they are equipped with a higher quantity of sensors than the devices of other companies.
The creation of hard drives, and along with them modern computers, opened the road to the creation of thin-film inductive and magneto resistive micro heads for recording information. Hard Disk Drives were created by two scientists – David Thompson and Lyubomyr Romankiv. Lyubomyr Romankiv was born in 1931 in the town of Zhovkva, Ukraine, though now he lives and works in the United States. Romankiv studied at the University of Alberta and received a degree from Massachusetts Institute of Technologies. He is the author of 65 patents. For a period he was the director of the Department of Electrochemical Technologies and Magnetism at the IBM Corporation’s research center. In 1993, Romankiv received the Perkin Medal, and in 1994 the Vittorio de Nora medal and the Morris N. Liebman memorial award. In March 2012, Lyubomyr Romankiv entered the US National Hall of Fame. He is one of ten inventors (along with Steve Jobs) to be awarded this honor.

One cannot imagine any customer electronics without transistors and capacitors over the last 70 years. The first patents for field-effect transistor (1925) and electrolytic capacitors (1931) belong to Julius Lilienfeld, a physics and electronics engineer from the city of Lviv. Although John Bardeen, Walter Brattain and William Shockley were denied a patent for the invention because Lilienfeld was first, the three scientists were awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1956. In 1988, the American Physical Society established the Lilienfeld annual prize to honor significant discoveries in the area of physics.

Machinery

The Piezo motor (known in English as the USM – Ultra Sonic Motor, SWM – Silent Wave Motor, HSM – Hyper Sonic Motor, SDM – Supersonic Direct -drive motor, etc.), in which the working element is piezoelectric ceramics, is able to convert electrical energy into mechanical energy with very high efficiency, exceeding in some cases 90%. It was created in 1964 by the Ukrainian engineer Vyacheslav Lavrynenko (Kyiv). It is indispensable in astronomy, in space exploration, in charged particle accelerators and in robotics. Thanks to piezoelectric motors, the following developments were made: drives for antennas and surveillance cameras, electric razors, electric actuators of cutting tools, tape drive mechanisms, tower and street clocks, slow rotating drives for advertising platforms, electric drill machines, actuators for children’s toys and mobile prosthesis, and even ceiling fans. Also, the wave piezoelectric motors are used in lenses for SLR cameras Canon, Minolta, Sony, Nikon, Olympus, Panasonic, Pentax, Sigma and others.

In 1880, in the town of Sestroretsk near St. Petersburg, the world’s first electric tramline was put into operation. It was designed by engineer Fedir Pirotsky, who was born in 1845 in Lokhvytsia, Ukraine. The electric tramline in the town of Lichterfeld, which was near Berlin and created by the Siemens Company, was put into operation only after a year. However, Pirotsky’s invention did not take hold in the Russian Empire, and the electric tramline in Sestroretsk shortly was dismantled. It returned only in 1892, when the electric tramline was built in Kyiv, which was first successful tram in the Russian Empire.

The Sikorsky R-4 was the world’s first serial helicopter, and the first helicopter included in the inventory of the US Army, Navy, Coast Guard as well as the United Kingdom’s Royal Air Force and Royal Navy. It made its first flight and was included in the inventory in 1942 and in 1944 became the first helicopter in the world to be placed in series production. The designer was Igor Sikorsky, who was born in Kyiv in 1889. He studied at the Kyiv Polytechnic Institute (1907-1911). Sikorsky was engaged in designing helicopters since 1908. In 1912, he moved from Kyiv to St. Petersburg, where his major was Biplane Design. In 1918, Sikorsky had to emigrate, first to France and in 1919 to the United States. He founded the design and construction firm, “Westland-Sikorsky,” which developed 15 models of aircraft. In 1939, he returned to his youth idea of designing helicopters. Sikorsky is considered to be the father of the world helicopter industry.

This capacitor was designed by scientists at Lviv Polytechnic National University from 1990-2011 under the leadership of Hryhoriy Ilchuk in collaboration with the Taiwan Textile Research Institute. Flexible supercapacitors powers household appliances. They consist of a solar battery a supercapacitor—which improves solar battery efficiency—and an electronic manager—which optimally distributes energy. In 2011, “Research & Development Magazine” listed the flexible supercapacitor among the world’s best inventions.

Between 1802-1803, Vasily Petrov, who studied at the Kharkiv Collegium, discovered the phenomenon of the electric arc and described the possibility of its application to lighting and the electric welding of materials. In 1882, Nicholas Benardos, who was born in the village of Mostove, Mykolayiv region, Ukraine and studied at Kyiv University, developed several designs of welding machines.

In 1875, Joseph Livchak (born in 1839 in Tysiv village, IvanoFrankivsk region) designed an escapement mechanism for text capturing printing machine for a printing shop in Vilna (now Vilnius, Lithuania). The machine was used for 15 years to print the Vilna Tribune newspaper. In 1886, Ottmar Mergenthaler received a U.S. parent on a machine that came to be known as the linotype. This innovation revolutionized the entire printing industry. Linotype was widely used until 1970s and 1980s when the new phototype and computer technologies replaced it. Linotype’s diascope was awarded the Golden Medal of the French Academy of Sciences.

Energy

Academician Anatoly Oleksandrov is considered to be the father of Soviet nuclear fleet. He was a native of the town of Tarashcha, Ukraine. Under his leadership, ship power plants were created for the first Soviet nuclear submarines and for unique nuclear icebreakers, which had, and still have no equal, in the world, namely: “Lenin” (1959), “Arctic” (1975), “Siberia” (1977). Their use has enabled regular commercial navigation of the Arctic Ocean, most of which is covered by ice year-round.

Thermodynamic cycle based on the double (binary) principle in which geothermal water transfers its energy not directly but to the water-amonia micture that increases the efficiency of geothermal power stations by 20-25%. The invention relates to Oleksandr Kalina (born in 1933 in Odesa) who immigrated to the USA where he founded Exergy LLC. After construction of the first experimental geothermal power station in Kanoha Park in Los-Angeles, the patent for Kalina Cycle was acquired by General Electric. Today, geothermal power stations using the Kalina Cycle principle are built in the United States, Iceland, Germany and Japan. In addition, Japanese metallurgical and oil refineries use the Kalina Cycle as well. Oleksandr Kalina’s Kalex LLC has finalized the development of the second-generation Kalina Cycle technology.

The particle detector (a multiwire proportional chamger – MWPC) was designed and produced by Georgiy [Georges] Charpak, a researcher at the European Organization for Nuclear Research known as CERN (born in 1924 in the city of Dubrovytsia, Rivne region). In contrast to the Geiger counter, this device enabled not only to determine the ionization value, but also establish the exact coordinates of electronic particles routes. The Charpak’s chamber opened a new field for measuring devices in nuclear physics, while the general principle and technical designers of the innovation are used in particle accelerators, including the Large Hadron Collider. In 1992, Georgiy Sharpak was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics.

Communications

WhatsApp is an instant messenger for smartphones. It was created by company founders Brian Acton and Jan Koum. The latter was born in 1976 in Kyiv, Ukraine. In October 2014, the mobile messenger WhatsApp was acquired by Facebook for 19 billion dollars. Subsequently, Jan was appointed the executive director of Facebook, Inc. This deal was a record in the start-up industry. The previous record-holder, Instagram, sold for only 1 billion dollars. In April 2015, the audience of active users of WhatsApp reached 800 million.

PocketBook Company is the fourth largest global manufacturer of premium electronic readers with E-Ink technology, as well as multimedia readers and tablets based off on Android OS. The company was founded in 2007 in Ukraine. Since 2011, its main office is located in Lugano, Switzerland. Pocketbook Company’s products are sold in 40 countries. Over the past seven years, PocketBook released to the world market more than 30 readers and multimedia devices for reading and received over 10 international awards and prizes.

Nick (Nicholas) Holonyak is credited as the designer of a light emitting diode that produces visible light instead of an infrared one. Holonyak, the son of Ukrainian immigrants Transcarpathian region, was an employee at General Electrics Company during this period. Semiconductor lasers used as controlled sources of light in phiberoptics communication lines, CD- and DVDplayers, HD-DVD and Blu-Ray devices, cellular phones as well as in printers and during surgeries and spectroscopity. One of the most common areas of use is scanning of product identification numbers. In total, Nick Holovnyak owns 41 patens in the field of electronic engineering.

Finance

PayPal is the most common service in the world of Internet payments. Today, PayPal is used by more than 230 million people in 190 countries. It was founded in 1998 by the American programmers Peter Thiel, Luc Nosekom, Luke Nosek, and the Kyiv-born Max Levchin. In 2004, the service was purchased by eBay for 1.5 billion dollars. Afterwards, Max Levchyn created the startup, Slide, a service for displaying a large number of photos, which paired with the MySpace social network. Later, Slide switched to creating social services for MySpace and Facebook. In August 2010, Google acquired Slide for 182 million dollars.

Defense

In 1914, Volodymyr Chelomey was born in Siedlce, the Russian Empire, which is now modern-day Poland. A few months after his birth his parents moved to Poltava, later to Kyiv, both of which are in Ukraine. He studied at the Kyiv Polytechnic Institute and the Kyiv Aviation Institute. Chelomey designed several series of Soviet sea-based cruise missiles. Moreover, in 1963 he designed light intercontinental ballistic missile UR-100 (NATO classification SS-11 mod.1 Sego), by which the Soviet Union for the first time managed to achieve nuclear parity with the United States. In 1971, he became the head of the Soviet space program. In addition, he is the author of the concept of manned space stations. Chelomey also designed the satellites “Proton”, “Flight” and “Kosmos-1267” and space stations “Salyut-3” and “Salyut-5”. Under his leadership, the heavy missile launcher, “Proton,” was designed, which kick-started the research program for planets of the solar system with the help of automatic probes. “Proton” is still used today in Russia’s space program. Lastly, Chelomey was one of the authors of the concept of the Soviet “Buran” space shuttle.

In 1815-17, the Ukrainian engineer and Russian artillery general Oleksandr Zasyadko (born in 1779 in the village of Lyutenka, Poltava region) designed several types of gunpowder missiles that had the flight distance four times greater that any foreign equivalent. He also invented a missile launcher platform that allowed firing in salvos (6 missiles at a time) in combat conditions for the first time in history. Zasyadko pioneered tactics of using missiles in combat, created the first missile factory in the Russian Empire and founded the Higher Artillery School. In Ukrainian and Russian armies, he is widely considered as the founder of the missile artillery forces as a separate military unit. One of the craters on the far side of the Moon was named after Zasyadko, honoring his achievements in artillery engineering as well as mathematical calculations of Lunar expeditions using rockets.

The commonly used spotted camouflage pattern on the military uniform and military equipment surfaces was patented in 1939 by the artist Wladimir Baranoff-Rossine (spot-by-dynamic camouflage or chameleon method). He was born in Kherson in 1888. After studying in Odesa and St. Petersburg, he moved to France in 1912. Beside camouflage patterm, Baranoff-Rossine invented photo chronometer – a device that determines quality of precious gems – as well as a machine for production, sterilization and bottling of fuzzy drinks “Multiperco” for which he received several international awards.

George Kistiakowsky was a physicist and chemist of the Ukrainian origin. In 1944-1945 he was the technical director of the Explosives Research Laboratory in Los Alamos, USA. He was one of the authors of nuclear weapons. Kistiakowsky was born in 1900 in Kyiv and then immigrated to Germany where he gained a degree in photochemistry at the University of Berlin. Later he moved to the United States. In 1940-44, he was a Member of the American Committee for National Defense. In 1959-61, he was a Special Assistant to the President Dwight Eisenhower. For many years he managed the state programs in the area of science and technologies. Kistiakowky became a prominent anti-war activist in the final years of his career.

On November 1, 1952 on Enewetak Atoll (Marshall Islands), the United States led the world’s first hydrogen bomb test. The triumvirate of American scientists credited with the development of thermonuclear bomb included the two of Ukrainian descent. These are a theoretical physicist George Gamow (born in 1904 in Odesa) and a mathematician Stanislaw Ulam (born in 1909 in Lviv). Gamow was an author of the theory of alpha decay via quantum tunneling, as well as studied subjects of radioactive decay of the atomic nucleus, star formation, the Big Bang nucleosynthesis and molecular genetics. On the other hand, Stanislaw Ulam designed mathematical computer models of nuclear and thermonuclear processes and programming languages, which addressed biological problems. These were later used not only in the area of nuclear physics, but also in molecular genetics.

Entertainment

It is a motion picture format created by the Canadian IMAX Corporation. IMAX was designed to record and display images of a much greater size and resolution than any conventional film system. Roman Kroitor, born in the family of Ukrainian migrants, invented the IMAX technology alongside with Graeme Ferguson, Robert Kerr and William C. Shaw). The first presentation of IMAX took place at EXPO-67 in Montreal, however, the invention acquired mass popularity only in the last two decades. Roman Kroitor is a famous film director and the author 8of the idea of Force – the cornerstone of the Star Wars franchise that unites the universe and serves as a source of power for Jedi knights and their Sith enemies.

Anatoliy Kokush, born in Kerch, is a Ukrainian film engineer. In 1986, he founded Filmotechnic firm specializing in professional film equipment for panoramic shots and filming motion to get a picture of higher quality. In 2006, Kokush was wawrded with two Oscars in the Scientific and Engineering Award category. One was for the concept of the Autorobot also known as the “Russian Arm,” while the second award was for the concept and development of the Cascade series of motion picture cranes. Hundreds of films were produced thanks to these innovations, namely Titanic, War of the World, King Arthur, Ocean’s Twelve as well as Transformers and Iron Man 2

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